AASAGACITY.NET
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A scoring system to define a species; an evaluation of a taxon/some taxa, using the Sensible Species Definition. 5 points between taxa makes a different species.

Reproductive
Isolating
Mechanisms


Geographic separation/Chance
of cross-breeding
Physical differences Voice

Song/Calls

Habitat preference
Behaviour
including
migration
Known
genetic differences

Assuming a rate of divergence in mtDNA of 1.6–2.0% per million years. (Fleischer et al.1998; also see Lovette 2004; Ho 2007; Weir and Schluter 2008).

From mtDNA analysis, species take from between 0.2 to 5.5m yrs.  ("The Speciation & Biogeography of Birds", Ian Newton, 2003

Total points sp
or
subsp

Scoring 0-1-2-3 0-1-2-3 0-1-2-3 0-1-2-3-4 0-1-2-3 0-1-2-3-4-5

A SENSIBLE SPECIES DEFINITION (Anderson 1998 and 2012)
Species are populations that are interbreeding and which are reproductively isolated from other such populations by their reproductive isolating mechanisms.

These may include -

     geographic separation / chance of cross-breeding;
    morphological and plumage differences;
    voice;
    habitat preference;
    behavioural differences such as nest-building, social grouping or migration;
    consistent mtDNA and other genetic differences.

Each mechanisms can be weighted according to the strength of difference from a recognised species and given a score between 0 and 5; a total of 5 would give the taxon species status.
0





1






2





3





4





5


Broad hybrid zone





e.g. Narrow and stable hybrid zone,
or good chance of interbreeding.



e.g A small chance of interbreeding.



No chance of interbreeding, or successful breeding is not known to occur where there is breeding overlap.


Physical characteristics a little different



Physical characteristics noticeably different.



Physical characteristics very different.


Physical characteristics completely different.
Not so different voice range and/or song phrases.




Noticeably different voice range and/or song phrases,






Completely different voice range and/or song phrases.
Similar or slightly different habitat preferences.



Noticeably different habitats.







Completely different habitats.
Slightly different behaviour.






Noticeably different behaviour.






Very different behaviour.
Genetic differences are barely measurable.


Genetic
differences are definitely measurable.



Genetic differences indicate larger divergences.

Genetic differences are large enough to probably have non-viable offspring.

Genetic
differences are so great that viable inter-breeding would be impossible.



AUDUBON'S SHEARWATER GROUP

Comparison of a Universally Accepted Species with Other Taxon such as a Subspecies
 Geographic separation/Chance
of cross-breeding

Physical differences
Voice

Song/Calls

Habitat preference

Behaviour
differences

Genetic differences

Total Points
sp
or
subsp
Research 1
Puffinus l. l'herminieri Audubon's Shearwater
Puffinus l. subalaris Galapagos Shearwater
Puffinus l. nativitatas Christmas Shearwater
Puffinus l. persicus Persian Shearwater
l'herminieri is a species; the others subspecies? of each other.
Research 2
Puffinus l. subalaris Galapagos Shearwater
Puffinus l. l'herminieri Audubon's Shearwater
Puffinus l. nativitatas Christmas Shearwater
Puffinus l. persicus Persian Shearwater
subalaris is a seperate species to l'herminieri
Research 3
Puffinus l. nativitatas Christmas Shearwater
Puffinus l. subalaris Galapagos Shearwater
Puffinus l. persicus Persian Shearwater
subalaris, nativitatus, & persicus belong to the same species.
Austin et al. 2004 & Pyle et al. 2011 strongly indicate that subalaris is a species-level taxon genetically closely related to P. nativitatis and only distantly related to P. l'herminieri; but also see Ramirez 2010 & Onley & Scofield 2007.  
Conclusions -
There are two species here -
Puffinus l'herminieri
Audubon's Shearwater
and
Puffinus p. persicus Persian Shearwater (Hume 1872)
with the subspecies
Puffinus p. nativitatas Christmas Shearwater and
Puffinus p. subalaris Galapagos Shearwater.
persicus (Hume 1872) takes precedence and the group maybe better called Indo-Pacific Shearwater.

Puffinus persicus (including temptator) was split from P. lherminieri (Austin 2004, Rasmussen & Anderton 2005, Onley & Scofield 2007) but still could be closer to them than to navivitatus.


0
1-2
2
1-2


0
1-2
1
2


0
1
1

0
1
1
1


0
1
1
1


0
1
1

0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0


0
0
0

0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0


0
0
0





0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0


0
0
0





0
2
2
1-2


0
2
1
1


0
1
1

0
4-5
5
3-5


0
4-5
3
4


0
3
3



sp

sp
sp
sp


sp

sp
subsp
subsp


sp

subsp
subsp