AASAGACITY.NET
 Knowledge is Empowering

A scoring system to define a species; anevaluation of a taxon/some taxa, using the Sensible Species Definition.  5 points between taxa makes a different species.



Geographic separation/Chance
of cross-breeding
Physical differences Voice

Song/Calls

Habitat preference
Behaviour
including
migration
Known
genetic differences

Total Points
sp
or
subsp

Scoring 0-1-2-3 0-1-2-3 0-1-2-3 0-2-3-4 0-1-2-3 0-2-4-5

A SENSIBLE SPECIES DEFINITION (Anderson 1998 and 2012)
Species are populations that are interbreeding and which are reproductively isolated from other such populations by their reproductive isolating mechanisms.
These may include
-

geographic separation / chance of cross-breeding;
� morphological and plumage differences;
� voice;
� habitat preference;
� behavioural differences such as nest-building, social grouping or migration;
� consistent DNA differences.
Each mechanisms can be weighted according to the strength of difference from a recognised species and given a score between 0 and 5; a total of 5 would give the taxon species status.
0
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
 

2

 
 
  
 
3




4





5




Broad hybrid zone





e.g. Narrow and stable hybrid zone,
or good chance of interbreeding.



e.g A small chance of interbreeding.



No chance of interbreeding.

Feather tracts and/or bare parts a little different,


Feather tracts and/or bare parts noticeably different,


Feather tracts and/or bare
parts very different.

Feather tracts and/or bare
parts completely different.
Not so different voice range and/or song phrases.

Noticeably different voice range and/or song phrases,







Completely different voice range and/or song phrases.
Similar or slightly different habitat preferences.








Noticeably different habitats.







Completely different habitats.
Slightly different behaviour.





Noticeably different behaviour.




Very different behaviour.
Genetic differences are barely measurable.




Genetic differences are measurable.



Genetic differences are larger, e.g. net nucleotide
divergence may be > 3%.



Genetic differences are large enough to probably have non-viable offspring.




Genetic� differences are so great that viable inter-breeding would be impossible.



Cicadabirds


Subspecies

(1)
Geographic separation/Chance

of cross-breeding
(2)
Physical differences
(3)
Song/Calls
(4)
Habitat preference
(5) Behaviour
differences
(6)
Genetic differences
Total Points sp
or
subsp
?
Research -
Coracina t. tenuirostris
(E. Australia, n to ?)
Coracina t. (aust wet tropics)
Coracina t. melvillensis (N. Australia incl. Cape York)
Coracina t. aruensis (southern New Guinea)
Coracina t. muellerii (northern New Guinea)

Coracina t. (aust wet tropics)
Coracina t. aruensis (southern New Guinea)
Coracina t. muellerii (northern New Guinea)

Coracina t. aruensis (southern New Guinea)
Coracina t. melvillensis (Northern Australia)
Coracina t. tenuirostris (Eastern Australia)

Conclusions -
2 species arise from the research -
Australian Cicadabird

Coracina t. tenuirostris (Jardine 1831)
Coracina t. melvillensis (Mathews 1912)
and Whistling Cicadabird
Coracina m. muellerii (Salvadori, 1876)
Coracina m. aruensis (Sharpe, 1878)
Coracina m. (aust wet tropics) (????, 2012)
includes ? - 4.
Coracina t. admiralitatis  (Rothschild & Hartert, 1914) Admiralty Is.
Coracina t. matthiae (Sibley, 1946) N. Bismarcks
Coracina t. heinrothi (Stresemann, 1922) New Britain
Coracina t. rooki (Rothschild & Hartert, 1914)  Umboi
Coracina t. tagulana (Hartert, 1898)  Missima, Tagula

Unconsigned subspecies of tenuirostris -
Coracina t. edithae (Edithae, 1932) S. Sulawesi
Coracina t. perrerata (Hartert, 1918) Tukanbesi
Coracina t. kalaotuae (Meise, 1929)Kalaotoa(N of Flores)
Coracina t. emancipata (Hartert, 1896) Tanahjampea
Coracina t. timorensis (Sharpe, 1878) Lomblen, Timor
Coracina t. pelingi (Hartert, 1918) Banggai Is
Coracina t. grayi (Salvadori, 1879) N. Moluccas
Coracina t. obiensis (Salvadori, 1878) C. Moluccas
Coracina t. amboinensis (Hartlaub, 1865) S.Moluccas
Coracina t. nehrkorni (Salvadori, 1890) Waigeo
Coracina t. numforana (Mayr, 1950) Numfoor
Coracina t. meyerii (Salvadori, 1878) Biak

Species already recognised by IOC - 
Grey-capped Cicadabird 
Coracina r. remota (Sharpe, 1878) New Ireland
Coracina r. ultima (Mayr, 1955) Tabah, Lihir, Tanga
Coracina r. saturatior (Rothschild & Hartert, 1902) Buka to Isobel
Coracina r. erythropygia (Sharpe, 1888) Malaita, Guadalcanal
(Coracina r. rostrata (Hartert, 1898)  Rossel)
(Coracina t. nisoria (PetersJL & Mayr, 1960) Russell)
Palau Cicadabird
Coracina monacha
(Hartlaub & Finsch, 1872) Palau
Yap Cicadabird
Coracina nesiotis (Hartlaub & Finsch, 1872) Yap
Pohnpei Cicadabird
Coracina inseperata (Finsch, 1876) Pohnpei
Makira Cicadabird
Coracina salomonis (Tristram, 1879) Makira
 

0
1
0-2
0-1
0-1

0
0-1
0-1

0
0-1
0-1

































0
1
2
2
3
2


0
0
0
0-1 5.
0

0
0-1
0

0
0-1
0-1

































0
0
0
0
0
1


0
2-3
0
?
?

0
0?
0?

0
1-2
1-2

































0
0
0
0
0
0


0
2-3
0
2-3
2-3

0
0
0

0
1-2
1-2

































0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
2
2

0
2
2

0
2
2

































0
0
0
0
0
0





0
0?
0
0?
0?

0
?
?

?
?
?

































0
0
0
0
0
0





0
5-7
2
4-7
4-6

0
2-4
2-3

0
4-8
4-8

































0
1
2
2
3
3




sp

sp
sub
sp
sp?
sp?

sp
subsp
subsp

sp
sp
sp

































sp
sub
sp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp


4. Coracina m. (n.e. Aust.), Rainforest? Cicadabird, differs noticeably from other Australian Cicadabirds by voice and habitat preference; and the same birds with the same calls come back to the rainforest after mixing with other Australian Cicadabirds, Coracina tenuirostris, which are on winter migration to New Guinea from eastern and northern Australia. It is also possible/probable that the subspecies admiralitatis,�matthiae, heinrothi, rooki, and tagulana are part of Coracina muellerii

5 . C. m. aruensis has a wing length of 111-123 mm, c/f other Cicadabirds on mainland New Guinea; ("Birds of New Guinea"Coates & Peckover, 2001). Coates & Peckover also say, in regard to Coracina tenuirostris, "Resident in South-west & South, some NG satellites and Bismarcks. Mainly (only?) a non-breeding visitor from Australia to rest of NG where only recorded March-Nov, mainly April-Sept."