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"Helmeted" Friarbirds

5 points between taxa to make a different species.



Geographic separation/Chance
of cross-breeding
Physical differences Voice

Song/Calls

Habitat preference
Behaviour
including
migration
Known
genetic differences

Total Points
sp
or
subsp

Scoring 0-1-2-3 0-1-2-3 0-1-2-3 0-2-3-4 0-1-2-3 0-2-4-5

A SENSIBLE SPECIES DEFINITION (Anderson 1998 and 2012)
Species are populations that are interbreeding and which are reproductively isolated from other such populations by their reproductive isolating mechanisms.
These may include -
     geographic separation / chance of cross-breeding;
    morphological and plumage differences;
    voice;
    habitat preference;
    behavioural differences such as nest-building, social grouping or migration;
    consistent DNA differences.
Each mechanisms can be weighted according to the strength of difference from a recognised species and given a score between 0 and 5; a total of 5 would give the taxon species status.
0
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
 

2

 
 
  
 
3




4





5




Broad hybrid zone





e.g. Narrow and stable hybrid zone,
or good chance of interbreeding.



e.g A small chance of interbreeding.



No chance of interbreeding.

Feather tracts and/or bare parts a little different,


Feather tracts and/or bare parts noticeably different,


Feather tracts and/or bare
parts very different.

Feather tracts and/or bare
parts completely different.
Not so different voice range and/or song phrases.

Noticeably different voice range and/or song phrases,







Completely different voice range and/or song phrases.
Similar or slightly different habitat preferences.








Noticeably different habitats.







Completely different habitats.
Slightly different behaviour.





Noticeably different behaviour.




Very different behaviour.
Genetic differences are barely measurable.




Genetic differences are measurable.



Genetic differences are larger, e.g. net nucleotide
divergence may be > 3%.



Genetic differences are large enough to probably have non-viable offspring.




Genetic differences are so great that viable inter-breeding would be impossible.




A Review of Particular Species, Using the Sensible Species Definition and Evaluating the Taxon as Above, in the Systematic Order of the World List.
Comparison of a Universally Accepted Species with Other Taxon such as a Subspecies
 Geographic separation/Chance
of cross-breeding
Physical
differences
Voice

Song/Calls

Habitat preference

Behaviour
differences

Genetic differences

Total Points
sp
or
subsp
Research -
Philemon b. buceroides
Helmeted Friarbird (E Lesser Sundas) 
Philemon b. amnitophilus (Sandstone Friarbird) 

Philemon b. amnitophilus Sandstone Friarbird 
Philemon gordoniArafura Friarbird

Philemon n. novaeguineae
New Guinea Friarbird
Philemon n. yorki (Cape York) Friarbird
and finally -
Philemon n. novaeguineae  New Guinea Friarbird
Philemon b. amnitophilus Sandstone Friarbird 
Philemon gordoni Arafura Friarbird
Conclusions -
There are three species of "Helmeted" Friarbird in Australia -
Philemon buceroides amnitophilus  Helmeted Friarbird, Kakadu
Philemon gordoni Arafura Friarbird
Philemon novaeguinae yorkiNew Guinea Friarbird, Cape York  

0
3

0
1-2

0
1

0
3
3



0
0-1

0
1-2

0
0-1

0
1-2
1-2

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0





0
0

0
1

0
0

0
1
0-1







0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0






0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0







0
3-4

0
3-5

0
1-2

0
5-6
4-6







sp
subsp

sp
sp?

sp
subsp

sp
sp
sp