AASAGACITY.NET

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More Sensible Species, judged between 1998 and 2012, non-passerines.

5 points between taxa to make a different species.



Geographic separation/Chance
of cross-breeding

Physical Differences

Voice

Song/Calls

Habitat preference
Behaviour
including
migration
Known
DNA differences

Total Points
sp
or
subsp

Scoring 0-1-2-3 0-1-2-3 0-1-2-3 0-2-3-4 0-1-2-3 0-2-4-5






A SENSIBLE SPECIES DEFINITION
(Anderson 1998 and 2012)
Species are populations that are interbreeding and which are reproductively isolated from other such populations by their reproductive isolating mechanisms.
These may include -
     geographic separation / chance of cross-breeding;
    morphological and plumage differences;
    voice;
    habitat preference;
    behavioural differences such as nest-building, social grouping or migration;
    consistent DNA differences.
Each mechanisms can be weighted according to the strength of difference from a recognised species and given a score between 0 and 5; a total of 5 would give the taxon species status.
0





1






2





3




4





5




Broad hybrid zone





e.g. Narrow and stable hybrid zone,
or good chance of interbreeding.
e.g. (1.1),(1.5),


e.g A small chance of interbreeding.
e.g.(1.3)


No chance of interbreeding.
e.g. (1.2). (1.4),
Physically little difference
e.g. (2-1).


Physically noticeably different,
e.g. (2-1), (2.2)


Physically  very different.


Physically completely different.
Not so different voice range and/or song phrases.

Noticeably different voice range and/or song phrases,
3.1,3.2,3.3,






Completely different voice range and/or song phrases.
Similar or slightly different habitat preferences.








Noticeably different habitats.







Completely different habitats.
Slightly different behaviour.





Noticeably different behaviour.




Very different behaviour.
DNA differences are barely measurable.




DNA differences are measurable.



DNA differences are larger.

DNA differences are large enough to probably have non-viable offspring.

DNA differences are so great that viable inter-breeding would be impossible.
e.g. (6.1)



A Review of Particular Species, Using the Sensible Species Concept and Evaluating the Taxon as Above, in the Systematic Order of the World List.
Comparison of a Universally Accepted Species with Other Taxon such as
a Subspecies

 Geographic separation/Chance
of cross-breeding

Physical differences
Voice

Song/Calls

Habitat preference

Behaviour
differences

DNA differences

Total Points
sp
or
subsp
STRUTHIONIFORMES
Struthio c. camelus               
Common Ostrich
Struthio molybdophanes   
Somali Ostrich
ANSERIFORMES

Platyrhyncos p. platyrhyncos  Eurasian Mallard
Platyrhyncos p. ?????            American Mallard
APODIFORMES
Collocalia s. spodiopygia                 (Samoa)
Collocalia s. terrareginae                (N.Qld)
SPHENISCIFORMES

Eudyptes c. chrysolophus
    Macaroni Penguin
Eudyptes c. schlegeli           Royal Penguin
PROCELLARIIFORMES
Diomedia e. exulans         
Wandering Albatross
Diomedia e. antipodensis
Antipodean Albatross
Diomedia e. gibsoni        
Auckland Is Albatross

Diomedia e. epomophora 
Royal Albatross
Diomedia e. sanfordi        
N. Royal Albatross

Thalassarche m. melanophris
Bl-browed Albatross
Thalassarche impavida  
Campbell Albatross

Thalassarche c. cauta        Shy Albatross
Thalassarche c. salvini      Salvin's Albatross
Thalassarche c. eremita     Chatham Albatross
PHOENICOPTERIFORMES
Phoenicopterus r. roseus    Greater Flamingo
Phoenicopterus r. ruber    
American Flamingo
PELECANIFORMES

Threskiornis a. aethiopicus   Sacred Ibis
Threskiornis a. moluccus  Australian White Ibis

Ixobrychus m. minutus     Little Bittern
Ixobrychus m. dubius       Black-backed Bittern

Butorides s. striata              Striated Heron
Butorides s. virescens          Green Heron

Ardea a. alba                    Eurasian Great Egret
Ardea a. melanorhynchos   African Great Egret
Ardea a. modesta                Eastern Great Egret
Ardea a. egretta              American Great Egret
Results can be tested by judging the taxon in a reverse order. e.g.
Ardea a. egretta              American Great Egret
Ardea a. modesta                Eastern Great Egret
Ardea a. melanorhynchos   African Great Egret
Ardea a. alba                    Eurasian Great Egret
SULIFORMES
Sula b. bassanus               Northern Gannet
Sula b. capensis                Cape Gannet 3.
Sula b. serrator                Australasian Gannet
Results can be tested by judging the taxon in a reverse order. e.g.
Sula b. serrator               Australasian Gannet 3.
Sula b. capensis              Cape Gannet
Sula b. bassanus             Northern Gannet
All gannets are one species
Sula dactyatra               Masked Booby
Papasula abbotti           Abbot's Booby

Sula d. dactyatra               Masked Booby
Sula d.  variegata               Peruvian Booby
Sula d. granti                     Sula Booby

Leucocarbo a. atriceps           Imperial Shag
Leucocarbo a. pupurascens   MacQuarie Shag

Anhinga anhinga                Anhinga
Anhinga melanogaster       
Darter
If melanogaster is a subsp so are the others, i.e.
Anhinga a. melanogaster      Oriental Darter
Anhinga a. rufa                     African Darter
Anhinga a. novaehollandiae Australasian Darter
ACCIPITRIFORMES
Pandion h. haliaetus                Osprey
Pandion h. cristatus                 Eastern Osprey
This is one of the best species tests -
Elanus caeruleus          
Black-winged Kite
Elanus c. leucurus         White-tailed Kite
Elanus axillaris           Black-shouldered Kite
Elanus scriptus           Letter-winged Kite

Milvus m. migrans        
Black Kite
Milvus m. lineatus         Black Kite
Milvus m. govinda         Black Kite
Milvus m. formosanus   Black Kite
Milvus m. affinis            Black Kite
Milvus a. aegyptius       Yellow-billed Kite
Milvus a. parasitus       Yellow-billed Kite

Accipiter n. novaehollandiae
Variable Goshawk
Accipiter n. hiogaster              
(S Mol)
Accipiter n. leucosomas           (NG)
Accipiter n. lavongai                (N Ireland)
Accipiter n. sylvestris               (L Sundas)
Accipiter n. griseogularis         (N Mol)

Aquila rapax                         Tawny Eagle
Aquila nipalensis                  Steppe Eagle
GRUIFORMES
Amaurornis o. olivacea     
Bush Hen
Amaurornis o. isabellina    Isabelline Bush Hen
Amaurornis o. moluccana   Pale-vented B. Hen
Amaurornis o. magnirostris    Talaud Bush Hen

Porphyrio p. porphyrio   Purple Swamphen
Porphyrio p. poliocephalus          (OR)
Porphyrio p. madagascariensis    (AF)
Porphyrio p. melanotus                (AU)
Porphyrio p. indicus                     (OR)
Porphyrio p. pulverulentus          (OR)
Porphyrio p. viridis                     (OR)
Porphyrio p. bellus                      (AU)
Porphyrio p. samoensis               (AU)
Porphyrio p. melanopterus          (OR)
Porphyrio p. pelewensis              (AU)
Porphyrio p. seistanicus              (EU)
Porphyrio p. caspius                    (EU)

0

1

0
2

0
1-2

0

2

0

2
2

0
2

0
2

0
2
2
  
0
2-3

0
4

0
2

0
1

0
1
1
2
   
0
3
2
2

0
1-3
3

0
1-3
3

0
2

0
1-2
1-2

0
3

0
2-3

0
2
2
     
0
1-2

0
3
2-3
2

0
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1
2
2

0
2
1-2
2
2
2

0
1-2

0
1-2
2
1-2

0
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1

0
1

0
0

0
0

0
0-1

0
0
0

0
1

0
1

0
0
0
    
0
0

0
0-1

0
0

0
0

0
0-1
0
0-1
   
0
0-1
0-1
0?

0
0-1
0-1

0
0-1
0-1

0
1

0
0-1
0-1

0
2

0
0-1

0
0
0
     
0
0

0
0
1-2
2

0
0
0
0
0
1
1

0
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-2

0
0

0
0
0
1

0
2
1
0
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
0
0

0
0


 
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
   
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0
          
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
   
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
      
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
        
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
       
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0
    
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
   
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
      
0
0

0
0
0
3

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
 

0
0
     
0
0

0
0

0
1-2

0
1-2
1-2

0
1-2

0
1-2

0
1-2
1-2
      
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0-1
0
      
0
1
0?
0?

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
1-2

0
1-2
1-2

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
       
0
0

0
0
0
2-3

0
0
0
0
0
2
2

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
2-3

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
3
      
0
3

0
1-2

0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
    
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0-1
0-1?
1?-4
            
0
4
?
?

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0
0?

0
0
0
       
0
0

0
0
0?
0-1?

0
0
0
0
0
0?
0?

0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
5
     
0
5

0
2-4

0
3-5

0
3-4
3-4

0
4-5

0
4-5

0
3-4
3-4
      
0
2-3

0
4-5

0
2

0
1

0
1-3
1-3?
3-7
          
0
8-9
2-3??
2??

0
1-4
3-4

0
1-4
3-4

0
4-5

0
2-5
2-5

0
5

0
2-4

0
2
2
       
0
1-2

0
3
3-5
9-11

0
0-1
0-1
0-1
0-1
5
5

0
3-4
2-4
3-4
3-4
3-4

0
3-5

0
1-2
2
2-3

0
4
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
1
1

sp
sp
    
sp
sp

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subsp


sp

sp?

sp

subsp
subsp

sp
sp?

sp
sp?

sp
subsp
subsp
     
sp
subsp

sp
sp?

sp
subsp

sp
subsp

sp
subsp
subsp
sp
   
sp
sp
subsp
subsp

sp
subsp
subsp

sp
subsp
subsp

sp
sp?

sp
sp?
sp?

sp

sp

sp
subsp

subsp
subsp
subsp
     
sp
subsp

sp
subsp
sp?
sp

sp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp
sp
subsp

sp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp

sp
sp?

sp
subsp
subsp
subsp

sp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp
subsp